Revolution and Latin America

According to Bradford Burns, in the 19th century, industrialization along

with increased capitalism came to Latin America with mixed advantages: It

advanced the elite and disheartened the popular classes or “folk” who saw

the capitalistic ideals of competition and individualism as alien to their

culture. The end result, he adds, was a downfall for the entire continent,

since the role of the latifundio expanded under the control of a few

landlords at the majority’s expense.

Latin America has long been a mixture of diverse ethnic and cultural

groups that have different cultural norms and values. The situation in the

19th century of elite versus folk aggravated this diversity. Rather than

gaining from the strengths that differences can bring when they work

together toward like goals, it further estranged one group from another. In

Facundo: Or, Civilization or Barbarism, the “great man” Facundo explains an

era, solving the question of how independence’s revolution in Argentina in

1810 reached Rosas ‘ dictatorship in the 1830s to 1850s. The answer: the

detrimental combination of two elements: the city, civilization’s field,

and the countryside, barbarism’s field.

The dichotomy of elite and folk and city and country brings discontent

and, at times, revolutions. Thus in Mexico a revolution began in the early

1900s against a background of widespread dissatisfaction with the elitist

policies of Porfirio Daz, that favored wealthy landowners and

industrialists and then continual unrest up to the 1930s. And, as Thomas

Benjamin noted in La Revolucion, the revolution became more myth and memory

than reality. Historians now debate the value of the Revolution to the

country besides a justification of what is in power today. Similarly, there

have been revolts and uprisings in Bolivia, Guatemala, Cuba, Chile, and

Historian Thomas C. Wright notes in Latin America in the Era of Cuba…


European Imperialism European expansion was almost a certainty. The continent was relatively poor place for agriculture, which pushed Europeans outside of Europe in search of new soil. Different countries sent explorers, like Columbus and Magellan, to find unknown trade routes to India and Asia. They stumbled onto new sources for raw materials and goods and Europe was suddenly substantially profiting. The exploration of Africa, Asia, and South America provided new wealth. It increased the standard of living for Europeans, introduced them to spices, luxurious goods, silver, and gold (class notes). Later revolutions and reformers throughout the 19th and 20th centuries transformed European society and continually provided the continent with new interests, experiences, and ideas. As a result, Europeans developed new technology, which enabled them to explore unknown territory and expand their influence overseas. European imperialism began in the 14th and 15th centuries. There were a variety of factors that allowed for expansion. First of all, because the population of Europe was low there was a potential for rapid population growth. Secondly, Europe was relatively small which made it venerable to invasion and provoked the need for strong armies. The fact that it was divided into states provoked the need for strong governments and because there was no one power that could change things in Europe they obtained a relatively strong freedom of thought. This solidarity gave Europe the power to send voyages and explorations around the globe to help find new resources. Futhermore, Europe sent explorers to find different and needed trade routes to Asia and India because the land routes were extremely long (class notes). Also, public opinion played an important role in the support of imperialism. Many people who werent pleased with their economic and political status could migrate to new regions to find other opportunities. Others were inspired to…

Dread Scott

The Dred Scott case was the final blow to Abolitionists. It ended the notion of freedom for African Americans. What makes this case interesting is the role the justices play on the issue of slavery. In 1856, a slave, Dred Scott, sued his master, Doctor Emmerson. Scott claimed that Emmerson had taken him from Missouri into the Northwest.

The Supreme Court finally processed the case in 1857 and Chief Justice Taney delivered the decision on March 6th. It declared three things. First, according to the constitution, Negroes are not citizens of the United States. (Daily Courier) Secondly, the Ordinance of 1857 had no independent legal effect subsequently to the adoption of the constitution, and could not operate of itself to confer freedom or citizenship within the Northwest Territory on Negroes, not citizens by the constitution. Lastly, he also declared the Provision Act of 1820, commonly called the Missouri Compromise, so far as it is understood to exclude Negro slavery from and communicate freedom and citizenship to Negroes in the northern part of the country is unconstitutional. (Illinois State Register) Justice Catron stated that because the plaintiff was a Negro of African blood, he then had no rights as a citizen of Missouri to maintain a suit in the Circuit Court. (Tourolaw)

This case gave hard blows to Abolitionists. Seven out of two judges reinforced what the south had been endorsing for many years, that slavery is beyond the limits of the Constitution and that it [slavery] is guaranteed by the constitutional compact. Southern papers mocked the Union and its abolitionist and praised the Supreme Courts ruling. It is apparent in here from one article, It appears that we, Secessionists, have been all the while not disturbing the law, not intruding novelties upon the country, not seeking to break up established principles, but that we have been simply a step in advance of the hig…


Starting with Hardings term in 1920 and continuing with Coolidge and Hoover after, the 1920s became known as the Roaring Twenties. The 1920s also represented an important watershed in the development of a mass national culture. A new emphasis on leisure, consumption, and amusement characterized the modern era, although its benefits were more accessible to the white middle class than to minorities and other disadvantaged groups. The Roaring 1920s were largely developed by the arts and entertainment industries.

The Roaring Twenties had cultural and economic characteristics. Starting with a recession from 1920-1921, aftermaths of WWI, the economy had a boom. Many things contributed. Automobiles were being produced massively by General Motors. Producers switched from using steam power to electric power. The large businesses kept the economy stable. By 1929, the largest 200 corporations held 49% of the corporate wealth and 43% of the corporate income. The top 5% of the corporations in the nation had 85% of the corporate income. And 3.2% banks owned 46% of the banking resources. After the recession, the unemployment rate stayed at a mere 3-4%. Per capita income rose from $641 in 1921 to $847 in 1929. There were mass-production techniques which resulted in a 40% increase in workers productivity.

The arts of the Roaring Twenties lay primarily in the literature. Talented writers were disgusted with the hypocrisy and materialism of contemporary American society. They decided to express their concern in their own works. The period was called the lost generation to them. There were great authors in this time. They include Earnest Hemmingway who wrote The Sun Also Rises (1926), and A Farewell to Arms (1929). F. Scott Fitzgerald also contributed to this period, creating The Great Gatsby (1925), and Tender is the Night (1929). H.L. Mencken was a journalist in this time. He published the American Mercury Magazin…


In a sense, The United States has been “expansionistic” from its very beginning. The 13 English colonies, clinging to the eastern seaboard, were determined to push westward despite all natural and political obstacles. Once established as a nation, the United States went about acquiring even more land, including Florida, the Louisiana Purchase, and the Mexican Cession. The expansion associated with the late nineteenth century was was just one chapter in a long book.

– Annexation of Florida, Oregon, and Texas (1845)

– Spanish American war renewed force of expansionist

– contiguous states vs. non-contiguous

These are a few areas in which one can study to form an essay concerning expansion during the nineteenth century.

Major westen religions

The three major Western religions that affect almost two billion people are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. All three religions focus on a higher authority, known as God. This higher authority loves and guides people through religious teachings. Studying these religions shows the teachings are sometimes different, yet they all lead to ways of living a more perfect life on earth and gaining an afterlife.

Each of these religions began in a different way and during different periods of history. Judaism, the smallest major religion is the oldest religion and is based on Gods revelation to Moses at Mt. Sinai. Later, around 30 A.D., Christianity began with the ministry and teachings of Jesus, who was a Jew. Being a Jew, Jesus never really rejected Judaism. As Christianity grew from Judaism, Christianity became a major religion of its own. The Romans, who were in power during early Christianity saw it as a threat to their emperor, but Christianity began to grow. In 313 A.D. the Roman emperor, Constantine became the first Christian ruler. Islam started in the 6th century A.D., much later than the other two religions. The prophet Muhammad spread the word of God after he had revelations directly from God. Jesus claimed to be the son of God, unlike Muhammad who claimed only to be a prophet of God. Even though Judaism and Islam grew to be major religions, they are similar because they both give rules for the way one should live their lives, rather than giving a set of beliefs like Christianity does.

The purpose of these religions was to serve God, but each of these religions has a different view as to Gods purpose. While each believes in one true God, Islam believes that God had no offspring, and has no human form. It also believes that, Life of this world is but a sport and pastime. (Lippman 5). Islam refers to God as Allah. Allah creates, keeps, and can destroy the world and most of all, He determines th…


Born Ernesto Guevara on June 14th, 1928, he spent his life believing that his birth date was in fact a month later than that, due to his mother, Celia Lynch being three months pregnant when she married his father, also Ernesto. He was born an Argentine but was to assume Cuban citizenship and then to give it up.

He suffered from asthma from a very young age, a trouble that plagued him throughout his whole life and troubled him in the humid climate of South America and in particular, Cuba.

In 1947 he met Berta Gilda Infante, also known as Tita, a member of the Argentine Communist Youth. They read and discussed Marxist texts and views. This was the developing of his socialist ideas, of which he had previously been unaffected by.

A year later and Ernesto continued his studies at university, passing three years of medicine examinations.

After finishing his studies in 1953 Ernesto travelled through South America on motorbike, recording the events in Motorcycle Diaries. He was staying in Guatemala during the time of the 1954 CIA coup against the democratically elected leftist president Salvador Arbenz, the man who was to succeed him after killing many civilians in the organised liberation of the country by the CIA, Operation Success. Ernesto became involved with underground rebel groups to resist the American imperialism and after the coup and subsequent takeover of power, transporting weapons to youths resisting the imperialist action. Ernesto was labelled as a dangerous communist and had to seek refuge in the Argentine embassy.

In 1955 Ernesto travelled to Mexico City to find work as a doctor. Here he met Fidel Castro, who had recently been in prison in Cuba for organising an attack on a military barracks of the Batista regime. Fidel referred to Guevara: “he knew much about Marxism-Leninism, self-thought, very eager to learn, he was convinced


In Liberalism, Emilia Viotti da Costa paints a picture of the political, social, and economic atmosphere in Brazil during the 1800s. One topic of her discussion was the many regional rebellions in the country between 1822 and 1845. Another topic discussed was Brazilian politics and how it may have contributed to the instability of the nation. A third topic of interest included the factors that allowed Pedro II to rule largely until 1889 without disruption. These are the three main topics of interest discussed in Emilia Viotti da Costas chapter Liberalism.

There were many reasons for the multiple regional rebellions that took place in Brazil from 1822 until 1845. The first of these reasons was the forming of the National Convention, which was composed of many groups of social elites ranging from priests to plantation owners. These social elites had completely separate motivations and initiatives, which were mostly personal and wealth driven, than those of the lower class. The Constitutional Charter, passed in 1824, was a second reason for rebellion in the country. This Constitution was created by the Brazilian elite and supported their self-interests and property. Class and racial differences were a major issue of the time. The constitution held no value for the majority of the population, who were mostly slaves and tenants on land they could not own. A third reason for rebellion by Liberals was religion, as Catholicism was the official religion of Brazil. As mentioned earlier, there were members of the National Convention who were priests. These individuals clearly wanted to preserve the interests of the church through the power of education. These are some of the underlying themes beneath the many regional rebellions of the period.

Brazilian politics also helped to cause the instability of the nation. Two conflicting parties dominated the political scene at the time. One group was the L…

genghis khan

Genghis Khan before his fathers death.

He was taught to ride horses at a very early age.

He was an expert bow man and had great strength.

He was a natural leader among his peers.

Temujin had many duties as son of a Chieftain

He was in charge of the horse heads and had to chase after lost animals that had run away.

Had to watch the sky line for enemies and raiders.

He learned of the great empire of Cathay and its civilization.

He was taught to be a warrior and told to have a fierce character.

He was descendant from the grey-eyed men who were one of the greatest tribes of their time.

Though a better bow handler he was scared o his brother.

Was carried of by his father on her wedding ride to the tent of her betrothed husband.

Chieftain of the Yakka Mongols or great Mongols. Who ruled 40K tents.

His fathers sworn brother was Toghrul, Chieftain of the Karaits which were the most powerful clan of the Gobi.

The Gobi is not a sand desert. Only 5% of it is covered in sand.

It is the coldest and most northern desert in the world.

It is above China in Northeastern Asia. It covers 500,000 square miles.

There is hardly any trees and the soil is dry and rock-like.

In the Mongolian community men and women got first priority over children when it came to food and a place by the fire.

In winter children had it harder because food was scarce and they couldnt kill animals of the herds they own.

During Spring wild animals were abundant and cattle and sheep gave lots of milk so there wasnt a shortage of food.

A tent made of felt stretched over wattled rods with an aperture at the top to let out smoke.

The tent could be carried by carts that were pulled by oxen.

Yurts of the Chieftains and their wives were decorated and carried treasures and family belongings.

His father had spent the night at in the enemies tent and had been poisoned and was gravely sick. Temujin rode as fast as he could to g…

Chinese Civil War

China was at hardship during the time period of 1911-1949. In 1911 there was the start of the Communist Revolution, and then the Chinese with the Americans help had to fight off Japan which continued into World War II. Finally after the Japanese had surrendered the Civil War began in China. The Civil War was one of the most violent acts in Chinese history, it lasted for four long brutal years between 1945-1949. The outcome and impacts of the Civil War would change China forever. My main focus is on the impacts the Civil War had on foreign countries, who was involved, why it happened, and what was the outcome of the Civil War. After World War II and the surrender of Japan, another long and brutal war ravaged over China. The Civil War, which took place from the 1945-1949, was a devastating war between the Nationalists, who were led by Chiang Kai-Shek and the Communists who had many great leaders. For example, Mao Zedong who helped establish the Communist capitol of Shih-Chia -Chuang which was a huge railroad center and ChenYi and Liu Bocheng who helped cut the Nationalists by destroying the protected outposts along the Lung-Hai and the Ping-Han lines which led to many other isolated cities. The roots of the conflict between the Communists and the Nationalists go back all the way to the 1920s. Their basic differences were over the formal agreement to cooperate in the war against Japan. In the end the Communists were victorious by gaining the peoples enthusiastic supports. Chang resigned and fled to Taiwan which was the only territory the Red Army did not occupy.

The Civil War involved the Nationalists and the Communists in a dispute over land and who would rule China. The Civil War also involved the United States of America and its many acts to intervene with peace talks. The first of many peace talks was in 1945 when the United States sent George C. Marshall to China to mediate the hostilities between t…