Julius Caesar was a strong leader for the Romans who changed the course of the history

of the Greco – Roman world decisively and irreversibly. With his courage and strength he created

a strong empire . What happened during his early political career? How did he become such a

strong dictator of the Roman Empire? What events led up to the making of the first triumvirate?

How did he rise over the other two in the triumvirate and why did he choose to take over? What

happened during his reign as dictator of Rome? What events led up to the assassination of

Caesar? What happened after he was killed? Caesar was a major part of the Roman Empire

because of his strength and his strong war strategies.

Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman whose dictatorship was pivotal in

Rome’s transition from republic to empire. When he was young Caesar lived through one of the

most horrifying decades in the history of the city of Rome. The city was assaulted twice and

captured by Roman armies, first in 87 BC by the leaders of the populares, his uncle Marius and

Cinna. Cinna was killed the year that Caesar had married Cinna’s daughter Cornelia. The second

attack upon the city was carried our by Marius’ enemy Sulla, leader of the optimates, in 82 BC

on the latter’s return from the East. On each occasion the massacre of political opponents was

followed by the confiscation of their property. The proscriptions of Sulla, which preceded the

reactionary political legislation enacted during his dictatorship left a particularly bitter memory

Caesar left Rome for the province of Asia on the condition that he divorce his wife because Sulla

would only allow him to leave on that condition. When he heard the news that Sulla had been

killed he returned to Rome. He studied rhetoric under the distinguished teacher Molon.

In the winter of 75-74 BC Caesar was captured by pirated and, while in their custody awaiting

the arriva…


There is no doubt that during Hitlers reign in Germany, someone killed Jews. Someone ordered the killings, someone organized the killings and someone killed them. Is there a difference in these someones? For many years there has been controversy surrounding the extermination of the Jews during the Nazi era. People were tried and convicted for their involvement: some of them denied their contribution, others appeared neutral, and still others were proud of their involvement. These killers came from numerous nationalities, mixed political backgrounds, varied social/economic statuses, and age range. In the article ONE DAY IN JOZEFOW, Initiation to mass murder, the author, Christopher R. Browning, gives his reader an intriguing perspective into the mindset of men who were actually given a choice of whether or not to kill the Jews. Because his perspective only focuses on one specific event, his conclusions are, for the most part, not completely convincing. It is reasonable to believe that there was a stronger underlying force which caused otherwise normal people to become killers during the Nazi era, but Brownings use of minimal sources, skewed numbers and somewhat vague statements, causes the reader to feel they have been subjected to a micro-study with macro conclusions.

Brownings article provides insight into a specific occasion in Jozefow, Poland, where Jews were murdered at point blank range by ordinary policemen. Of these policemen, some were drafted and some volunteered for one reason or another. This group, called Reserve Police Battalion 101, consisted of men around the age of 39 with only about 25 per cent of them belonging to the Nazi Party. (Browning, 304) After studying the court records of interrogations and trials of certain members of this police battalion, Browning discovered that these men were given a chance to reject the task of killing the Jews, yet the majority of them still follo…

Domestic Violence: Germany v. US

Domestic Violence in both the United States and Germany has gotten out

of control. “As many as 46,000 German women are estimated to spend some

time at women’s refuges every year because of domestic violence.” (World:

Europe, Germany gets tough on domestic violence) In the United States,

domestic violence has been found to be the number one reason for women and

children to find them selves homeless. “Domestic violence and sexual

assault occur frequently in the United States. 1,500,000 women are raped or

physically assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States,

and 1 in 4 women in the United States will experience domestic violence or

sexual assault in her lifetime.” (Domestic Violence in the United States)

Whether the violence takes place in Germany or in the United States,

domestic violence is wrong. Other than the similarities around the world

regarding abusive relationships, there really is no typical victim type

when it comes to domestic abuse. Psychologists have shown that in the

majority of the cases of domestic violence, the typical abuser has a single

purpose. That purpose is to take complete control over a partner and to

demonstrate power over the person. It has been shown that the violence in

the majority of cases has nothing to do with anger. Sure, anger is method

that can instill fear or assist someone in taking control, but, whether the

act takes place in Germany or the United States, instilling fear and taking

Psychologists have also demonstrated that no matter where in the

world, there are certain ritualistic methods towards the abused by the

abuser prior to an act of domestic violence. These include: children as

pawns, coercion and threats, denial and blame, economic abuse, emotional

Although late, the German legislature has begun to address the

problem. “Violent men in Germany could be forc

Bases of American Civilization

What were the bases of Civilization in America? (Revised 10/9/01)

Migration of the European and Asian Homo sapiens across the tundra land bridge, presently the Bering Strait between Alaska and Siberia, is said to be due from increasing population pressures(p. 198), and the pursuit of mammoths, mastodons and other large game. Civilization in America was separate from the classical world of Asia, North Africa and southern Europe, and progressed on its own, without the help of any previous civilization.

The ancient huntersthe first evident humans around 9500 B.C.E.basis of social organization revolved around kinship, a basis commonly present in many future groups. The seclusion and isolation of these groups have some believing the people of America developed agriculture, domestication of some animals, weaving, ceramics, a number system, religious ideas, complex societies and urbanization.

Environmental change, disappearance of large game and stabilization of the sea coast became a few underlying factors for the cultures; transition to agriculture and a sedentary way of life created dependency on agriculture, beginning a process resulting in 3 systems: complex social, political and economical. Sedentary populations who could produce surpluses attained the status of a complex society, forming a base for hierarchical societies. Chieftains or rulers, over large territories, indicated civilizations with highly developed religious and political systems and monumental architecture. (p.203)

The Olmecs, the mother civilization of Mesoamerica (p.205), developed cultural tradition, urbanism, complex religion, the beginning of writing, and so much more, influencing many expanding societies. Teotihuacan, the first classic city, contained a large urban center, population of 200,000, residential districts, religious artifacts, and a political empire, which covered parts of Mexico. The Mayan culture, outpu…

Commercial Compromise

Dependent on British goods for the survival of their agricultural economy,

the Southern States strongly opposed any attempts by Congress to tax

foreign and interstate imports. This was seen as a direct affront to the

South as well as to states’ rights in general. Those who believed in a

strong, powerful federal government favored import duties because the money

raised bolstered the national economy. As the United States was still a new

nation, federal monies were needed to fund infrastructures. However, the

American economy was still regional in the decades immediately following

the War of Independence. The North became increasingly industrial in nature

and was largely self-sufficient. Northern states did not rely on foreign

imports as much as the southern states did at the time. However, the south

had been practicing a plantation economy for centuries and to suddenly

impose a tax would burden many southern plantation owners and business men

and severely cut into profits. The south felt that this would place them at

an economic disadvantage and that the north would be heavily favored in the

federal government. Therefore, the issue of taxation became one of the most

I support the views of the north for several reasons and propose an

interesting solution to this issue. First, I believe that as a new nation,

all states and all citizens must make an effort to join forces and one of

the ways of achieving this unity is through economic interdependence. The

federal government needs to raise money from some kind of taxes; without a

national pool of money there would be little need for a national

government. One of the most convenient and reasonable ways to raise federal

funds is through import tariffs. Moreover, import tariffs encourage

domestic production of goods. Except for those goods that absolutely cannot

be produced a t home, most of our nation’s supply should come f

Captains of Industry

Andrew Carnegie was principally involved in the steel industry. Andrew Carnegie emigrated from Scotland to America with his family when he was a young boy. He was first hired at a textile mill making only $1.20 a week. After a little while he found another job in a textile mill making a little bit more money. In 1849 Carnegies uncle got him a job at a telegraph company as a messenger boy. When Carnegie was 17 he got hired by the Pennsylvania Railroad. This was the biggest break of his life because his boss, Thomas A. Scott, helped him make investments in the rail. He made some of his wealth from this and then put that money into his steel company. Carnegies business philosophy was that business was the survival of the fittest and that only the truly strong businesses will survive. Carnegie donated a lot of his money to libraries. He also gave a lot of money to museums including: Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, Andy Warhol Museum, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, etc He also gave money to observatories like Mount Wilson Observatory.

John D. Rockefeller was principally involved in oil. Rockefellers rise to power all started when he went to a 10 week course on bookkeeping at Folsoms Commercial College. After he was finished he went to Cleveland to find a job when he was 16. He was eventually hired as an assistant bookkeeper by Hewitt and Tuttle. By the time he was 19 he was climbing in the ranks at Hewitt and Tuttle. When he turned 20 Rockefeller and his friend Maurice Clark each put up $2000 and formed Clark and Rockefeller. After one year of business their profit was $4400 and at the end of the second year their profit was $17,000. In the early 1860s he realized that his success in Cleveland was going to be limited. He began investing in oil in 1862. By 1863 he decided he was going to be able to make his money in oil. He started making his own supplies for oil refining; he hired his own plumber…

aboriginal culture

Aboriginal have began to live in Australia nearly about 1 million years ago. Some people believe that originally came from different parts of the world. And migrate to Australia. When they came to Australia they became to developed many different cultures and traditions in which some of them we no longer see today. Only a small number of aboriginals cultures still. But less people know about it due to the stolen generation.

What exactly has cause this to happened? What did the Aboriginal do to stop their culture from extinct?

Some of their culture is being used all over the world. For example Boomerang. It is known all over the world. But some people didnt know where it originally came from. It originally came from Aboriginal, they used to use it for hunting animals. Now people used it just for fun. Now they start to design it in many different styles.

The aboriginal family has a good way of living. They live based on a kinship system.it regulates the whole social life of the aboriginals. Which includes marriage. They lived different than us they all have stages in which they group with. In every nation the important thing to them is there culture. They have to tell their incestor about there culture. The aboriginals now dont have anything to be proud of. To be proud of their culture. What is there culture. They are only some of it still exist.

The biggest thing that causes the loss of their culture is the invasion of the European and also the convicts from the war. they have treated Australia as if they was no one in it. So they just went in and stay. They dont care what will happen to the Aboriginal in the future. They treated the Aboriginals as a pest. They teach the Aboriginals about their culture. And told them to used the European culture instead of using their own. And also used English language instead of original Aboriginal language. So that is what happen which lead to the loss of the Aboriginal cult

Bataan Death March

The Bataan Death March: A brutal, barbaric journey through malnutrition, disease, torture, and death. Documentaries try to explain the history of these horrible events, but only those who survived the march actually know how awful and cruel it really was.

December 7, 1941: The renowned bombing of Pearl Harbor stunned the United States and the whole world. The Japanese had been dominating many territories, and were continuing to spread throughout South East Asia. The President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, had then devised a plan of action and sent American Troops to defend Corregidor Island, located in the Philippines. After fighting through many small battles, they finally arrived in 1942, in the Manila Bay. There, the American and Filipino Troops teamed up to resist the forces of the Japanese Soldiers. However, the United States had not expected to remain there for more than one month, and was not very well prepared. They had believed that help would be coming for them, but unfortunately, it was impossible to send more assistance into Corregidor. The US and Filipinos battled for five months against the fierce Japanese, who invaded May 5, 1942. The Japs shot one shell every five seconds for 24 hours straight. The Americans were under the command of General Jonathan Wainwright, who had led a gallant, but hopeless fight, and finally in May of 1942, 76,000 troops surrendered to Japan.

This resignation had begun one of the worst marches in the history of any war. When the survivors of the Battle of Corregidor became POWs, they were forced to endure a 90-mile trek, called the Bataan Death March. The Prisoners were denied food, water, and medical treatment throughout most of this time. Their personal possessions and equipment was taken from them, and they had to march in the blazing sun without any basic sanitary facilities. Along the way their Japanese escorts beat, clubbed, and bayoneted them…

Creative Overview of the Black Death

It is a year of our Lord 1352, on the twentieth day of the month of October. It was a sunny and steady day. Normally Genoa gets cold and miserable at this time of the year, but today, probably, God sends a pitch of mercy to our devastated land. It is quiet around. At any given moment I would have been grateful for this peace and tranquility, but today I feel just sad.

No one is around. Mediterranean wind is playing with last leaves on my castano tree. They were the only spirit I could talk to these days, but looks like they are being taken away. Emptiness, darkness, misery Go, maybe you will find a better place to be. But who am I trying to deceive here? There is no better life around. Cruelty, hunger, hopelessness The curse has invaded and swallowed not only Holy Roman Empire, also Byzantine Empire, and even Constantinople. The death has touched everything from Cordoba, to Cairo, to Caffa (p.13). Everyone I have known is gone forever. Even all my animals got swept away by the plague: the dogs have died and the rats have run or hidden.

It was exactly 5 years ago, when the Lord sent the curse on our land. Twelve slaves got harshly punished by God for being sinful (Michele da Piazza, p. 29).

They ran away from our city all the way to Messina, but the infection had already pierced them to the bones. They left the infection spreading in Genoa before the run. The destruction has begun. The sickness was highly contagious, that anyone who spoke to them would bring an unavoidable death on himself. The consequences were terrifying in every case. Some people were losing the ability to speak; they were still alive and tried so hard to scream out for help, but their tongue just seemed incredibly heavy and out of control. I saw my neighbors family getting sick all at once, spitting their blood for three days until they were all done, all at once. In this case, the evil attacked not the head, but the lung which produced very sharp …


Violence in modern Colombia takes place in many forms. The three major categories are crime, guerrilla activities, and attacks committed by drug traffickers. Violence has become so widespread and common in Colombia that many people have now become numb to it. The Colombian economy has also benefited from the illicit drug trade; however violent it may be.

During the 1970s, Colombia became well known, as one of the worlds most important drug processing, production, and distribution centers for marijuana and cocaine. The shrubs and plants from which both drugs are derived from and processed has been well known in Colombia for centuries, but until the 1970s drug refiners and traffickers had not taken full advantage.

The chewing of coca leaves was very well known in the South American Inca Empire in the 11th century. The Incas, the Colombian Chibchas and other local ethnic groups have always attributed mythical and religious power to the bush and to the alkaloids that were extracted by its leaves by chewing on them. The existence of a drug, cocaine, which could be chemically extracted from large volumes of leaves was not discovered until 1884 by an Austrian ophthalmologist.

Marijuana is a drug extracted from hemp, a plant from which coarse fibers are also obtained for the manufacture of cloth, cordage, and sacking. The development of marijuana in Colombia took place in the mid 1940s during the administration of President Mariano Ospina Perez. The government at this time imported various fibers producing species from different parts of the world in an attempt to improve the postwar textile industry. The imported fiber plant included cannabis sativa (hemp) from Asia, and jute and sisal from Mexico. The Ministry of Agriculture was distributing these plants throughout the countryside of Colombia, and peasants and farmers were encouraged to plant them. During this same period, the consumption of marijuana was beginning to …