My Father’s Genealogy

The history and genealogy of my family on my father’s side is

difficult to write. Not because it is complicated or shrouded in mystery

or intrigue, but because there is no written history of it; no documents,

no diaries, no letters. What little exists has been passed down verbally

from my Dad’s grandparents, to his parents, to him and now to me. There

are neither records nor communication before my great-grandparent’s birth

in the very first decade of the 20th century. I asked my Dad how that

could be so? He answered somewhat apologetically and almost with

“I think it was really three things. They lived through some very

trying and tragic times; WWI, WWII, the Holocaust, and after the

Second World War, the annexation and occupation by the communist

U.S.S.R. Secondly, what little documentation existed was destroyed

or lost during or after the trauma of the wars. But most of all, I

think that my parents and grandparents just wanted to forget the

horrors of their young lives and didn’t want to preserve anything to

remember their horrible past.”

But what little my Dad knew, he told me. Our family’s immigration was the

same as so many other Poles during the 1950’s and 1960’s; to escape the war-

torn-instable nation of Poland for the “City on a hill:” Chicago

My Dad was born in Poland in 1960 as was my uncle one year prior in

1959. They grew up in a sleepy farming community in a town called Debrzno,

home to 1000 people and “1000 pigs, sheep, and cows” (Marcinkowski). His

real name is Wieslaw Grezgorz Marcinkowski; he goes by Greg since as he

says, “it’s just all so unpronounceable.” His mother and father’s names

are Krystyna and Mieczyslaw or Kristina and Matthew. The whole family grew

up quite poor, supporting themselves on a few acres of meager farmland.

None of my grandparents or great-grandparents ever received more than a 6th…

Brown V B Board

In the 1950s African Americans tired of segregation and discrimination, launched the civil rights movement to demand equality. The NAACP had been able to open some all-white universities and graduate schools to African American Students, by demonstrating that in most cases educational facilities of white students, but the court maintained that segregation as legal.

In 1952 a group of cases that challenged segregation in public schools came before the supreme court as Brown V. Board, this case involved Linda Brown, a young African American Student from Topeka. The segregation in Topekas school prevented her for attending an all-white school near her house, instead she had to travel a very long distance over dangerous railroad tracks to get to an all-black school.

The lawyer Thurgood Marshall suggested that segregation phiscologically7 damaged African American students by lowering their self stem. Many Americans praised the decision as a step fordware ending to end segregation completely. Soon , some states moved quickly to end school segregation, however, many white southern leaders reacted to the decision with alarm, for example the governor of Virginia, vowed to use every legal means at his command to maintain segregation schools in his state, and because of the resistance from the south the supreme court issued a rule in 1955, calling on federal district courts to end school segregation as soon as possible.

The Brown V. Board of Topeka was a Supreme court case challenging segregation in public schools, in it the Court ruled the separate educational facilities were unequal.

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Hiroshima Bombing

In August of 1945 nuclear weapons were exploded upon the people of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. Following the bombing of the cities the Japanese immediately surrendered to the Allied Nations. The cost of the war was devastating. Never has there been such destruction brought down by a simple blast of splitting atoms. Killing as many as 240,000 Japanese citizens, the dropping of the bombs became one of the most written about contemporary historical topics (Hiroshima & Nagasaki, 3). In the 50s and the 60s, the traditional view of the bombing was that the bomb was a solely military action that avoided the loss of as many as a million lives in the upcoming invasion of the island of Kyushu. Therefore, President Truman had deliberately chosen to bomb a not-so-heavily populated city and an important military site for the Japanese. However, statistics showed that Hiroshima was at the present-time the most heavily populated area with civilians more so than of army soldiers and sailors. Thus, President Trumans monumental decision to drop the bombs was developed from a complex background. While Truman emphasized that the bombings were the result of military reasons, clearly there were the influences of the political, diplomatic issues and many other pressures that enforced his decision.

Truman did believe that the bomb would be used specifically for military use. He knew of the ferocious fighting currently taking place in the Pacific, and naturally had a desire to minimize what he felt would inevitably be a long, bloody struggle. And adding even more pressure from a military standpoint came when a second invasion was discussed (Rhodes). The invasion would require risking several American soldiers to fight a violent fight against the Japanese on mainland Honshu. Thus, it seemed that military pressures lied most heavily on Trumans mind. After the dropping of the bombs President Truman quoted in The New York Times, Hiro…

Cultural essay

Living two different life styles is not easy but it is a big experience of my life. From this experience, I have learned much the reality of life and which has made me strong from my heart. I lived in India for 14 years since the day I was born. The change in my life began when I moved to America. The first problem I faced was lack of English knowledge, but first two years of school had a big impact on my life with unforgettable experiences. Difference in culture, religion, and festivals helped me learn more stuff. Coming to United States had made me strong facing the problem, and gave me some freedom.

When I came to America, I gave 100 percent of my attention into learning English. I knew only alphabets and greetings when I lived in India. I remember applying for English tutoring classes, in India, but didnt make it through because I could not say simple sentence like, Open the curtain. I asked my self a question, How and when will I learn English? However, before I knew, I could talk, read, and write in English because of the hard work that I put into learning English. I tried talking with my cousins in English, and they helped me correct my mistakes. I studied very hard and spent so much time to get extra help. A learned somewhat English by watching TV because it helped me understand the conversation between two people and helps me learn new vocabulary. Therefore, coming to America has increased my knowledge of learning new languages like English and Spanish.

The first day of school in America was exciting and scary. I was excited to meet new people, see how the school system worked, and I wanted to know what kind of class, and teachers I would have. It was the first time I had ever ridden on the bus. When I was in India, I went to school on my bicycle.

I did not like the idea of not wearing uniforms because I did not know the fashion trend. I was afraid that people would make fun of my In…

Early America

America. No other word in any language sparks such a passion of energy in people. Why is

this? Is it because of the prosperity that the United States is associated with? Maybe, it is the

idea of complete freedom. Most people in less fortunate countries dream about a life in a new

land. Most often America is the land which pops into their heads. If people in less fortunate

countries dream of a new life in America, why has their been a decline of patriotism? Quite

possibly it is the lack of education, in the history of our fine country. People have forgotten

why we live in a free country, or how our country came to be. Possibly it is the fact that since

we no longer realize the overwhelming odds we faced in the revolution, or the matter of why

we succeeded from Britain. People take this country for granite. Two authors, Howard Zinn,

and Thomas A. Baily have not forgotten why we broke away. These men have similar

opinions on the social, political, and revolutionary origins of our country.

North and South America were colonized by modern European countries. The way

these countries interacted was the basis for society in Colonial America. For example, Spain

influenced the colonial times by introducing slavery through the Native Americans. Because

of Spains introduction of slavery, it became a way of life in fifteenth, sixteenth, and

seventeenth century America. Baily and Zinn both agree that Colonial America was directly

influenced socially by the mixing of different cultures from the immigrants. Society was an

important factor in colonial America….colonial society was not democratic and certainly

not equalitarian; it was dominated by men who had money enough to make others work for

them. And: Few of these men were descended from indentured servants, and practically

none had themselves been of that class. Here, Zinn gives an example of how society

worked. Baily wrote; In c…

Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899. His mother Grace was a music teacher and his father worked hard to support the family. The two parents were very strict and expected politeness and dedication from their children.

In grade school Ernest was the class clown, and in high school he played football. He also began writing and soon was writing for the school newspaper. His uncle worked at the Kansas City Star and got young Ernest a job writing for the paper as well.

In 1917 Hemingway went to war, where he worked for the Red Cross Ambulance division. Hemingway wasnt happy there and soon he was acting as a soldier so he could be on the front lines. On July 8, 1918 an explosion hit the front lines, injuring Hemingway in the knee. He carried a fellow soldier to safety before collapsing on the ground.

Hemingway fell in love with twenty-seven year old Agnus, but the relationship ended shortly, when Ernest met twenty-nine year old Hadley. They were married after nine months and moved to Paris. While in Paris Ernest started writing stories, he used his past experiences mixed with a little jazz to create stories that were both vivid and wild.

After living in Paris, Hemingway went on a trip to Austria and called Hadley to join him. She decided to bring all his previously written stories to him, and lost all of them on the train.

In 1923 Hadley and Ernest moved to Spain, where their first child was born. A son named John after one of the couples friend, who was a bullfighter. While in Spain Hemingway wrote his first book, The Sun Also Rises and got it published in 1926.

Ernest was a womanizer and had been having an affair with another woman named Pauline; he divorced Hadley, moved in with Pauline and soon married her. They moved to America and settled in Key West, FL, where Ernest fished for enjoyment. He said that Key West was an escape from all the wonders of life and

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler was born and reared in Germany. He was just like any other man, de-voted to his country. Hitler served as a soldier and a statesman. He gained the trust of mil-lions that fought and died in his name. We must understand how he gained and abused power. We must know the life and impact of the man who was once a madman and a po-litical genius.

Adolf Hitler was born on Easter Sunday, April 20, 1889, in the Austrian village of Braunau. Hitlers mother Klara Polzl was a nice simple girl, twenty-three years younger than her husband, Alois Schicklgruber. Klara was the maid to Aloiss children when she got pregnant by him. When Alois heard she was pregnant they were married at once. But the child she carried, and two more died before Adolf.

Alois was not a loving father, he had a bad alcoholic problem, often abused his family, and visited mistresses. Alois Hitler died when Adolf was only fourteen. After Aloiss death, Adolf had a burden lifted off his hands. He only stayed in school for two more years after his father died, and then dropped out at age sixteen. Hitler had only spent ten years in school.

Adolf was inspired to paint, it let him be a different person with his creativity. His mother, who had a lot of faith in him becoming a artist, gave him enough money to go to the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. When Adolf was in Vienna, doctors found a tumor in his mothers chest. They operated immediately but she grew weaker as the months past. Hitler always tried to comfort his mother. At the same time, Hitler wanted to study art. In 1907 his mother gave him permission to take his inheritance from his father to support him in Vienna for one year and pay tuition. In October of 1907 the rector of the academy told Hitler that he was a architect, not a painter. After hearing that disappointment, he found out his mother was dying. Adolf was there for his mother in her last months. She died on December 21,1907.

black death

In Zieglers book The Black Death, he talks about the origins and nature of the bubonic plague. There was another factor in the Black Death. Not only was bubonic plague present, but also primary pneumonic or pulmonary plague which is more lethal. He discussed the fact that the bubonic plague was carried by fleas travelling on rats and that the pulmonary plague was spread through the air. This gave the medieval doctor a lot of trouble because, they didnt realize they were dealing with two different forms. Therefore, they did not know how to begin to prevent or cure it.

The plague was preceded by many natural disasters and met a population that had bred too fast without providing itself with the resources to sustain themselves. The Black Death reduced the population of England to more easily manageable proportions. True that the plague found awaiting in Europe a population that was not equipped to deal with such an illness. They had been distracted by wars, malnutrition, and land that was inadequate to provide its people.

The Black Death spread across Europe with no regard to age, class, wealth, or health. It arrived in Italy before it hit the main land and traveled all over Europe killing and astounding massive numbers of people. Everywhere it hit was the same story. Sometimes it hit with immense strength and other times it struck slowly. The medical world as well as the church just couldnt understand how to stop or prevent this plague.

The church declared that it was Gods wrath against all those who sinned. But, church officials as well were struck. Others blamed the Jews and accused them of poisoning wells, but they too were hit by the plague. No one could explain this wild phenomenon.

The Black Death does not have a thesis statement. It is a book that i

Impact of industrialisation 19

Industrialization, Nationalism and imperialism, if they are brought together their product is highly explosive, because of different interests of different groups that are influential enough to affect countrys foreign and domestic policy.

I chose the industrialization as the first aspect to asses, because as far as I am concerned these three issues can be put in a chain. Due to my knowledge, the first step to imperialism is highly developed economy, what causes increasing importance of industrialists.

XIXth century is often called as the great century of technical development. In the second part of this century, we can notice that Germany (still not unified) recorded an industrialization Boom that made it after unification 3rd powerful power in the world. Same time in Russia, that was under the reign of Alexander II, reforms were introduced. Some of them like abolition of selfdom were to liberal for back warded Russia. Although establishment of the State Bank and introduce of new taxes made high industrialization weaker than in other European states. France for instance suffered another difficulties with industrialization. Their industry class was weakened by 1848 revolutions and Franco-Prussian war that lead to unification of Germany. The only country that did not suffer gross difficulties with industrialization was Great Britain. Although G.B. industrialization had a specific character. As the industrialization proceeded the local, island market became satiated. The industry circles began seek for new markets and started to export their products abroad, to Continental Europe and to British colonies, in fact British empire increased its size b 50% in XIX century, to cover 1/5 of the globe and something like a quarter of worlds population.

This state was desired by all of contemporary industry circles across the Europe. To produce on a large scale and to earn proportional amounts of money.

Africa

THE ENVIRONMENT OF ANCIENT AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS

The environment is an extremely important factor in determaing the developement of a civilization. It can help advance a civilization or impede it. In ancient Africa, the environment affected the different civilivations, such as the Sahel, the Wagado Empire and the Mbuti of the Ituri Forest. The environment uopn many aspects of these and other civilizations, such as agriculture, technology, trade, daily life and even sometimes the physical appearence of the people in the civilization were greatly affected by their environment.

The Sahel, which was located in West Africa and south of the Sahara Desrt, was affected by its environment. In ancient times, the climate of the climate of the Sahel was not so hot and dry, it allowed the people of the civilization to cultivate the land and gro crops. There was a wet season, most of the crops would grow and a dry season, when the winter crops would grow. The lands of the Shael were covered with natural grasses, which was great for raising cattle, sheep and goats. the manure that was produced by these animals would then help enrich the soil. Some of the lands of Sahel had iron deposits, which helped advanced their technology. Iron spears ,swrods ans hoes were developed. The iron weapons helped the Sahel protect itself and the tools helped with agriculture. Iron objects were alos valueable, so they were used to of rtrading and helped the people of the Sahel become skilled traders. The environment helped advance the ancient civilization known as Sahel.

The Wagadu Empire was an Ancient African civilization whose environment impoact its trade and daily life. This empire was located south of the Sahara and in between the SEngal River and the Niger River. Due to this civilization’s location, people were able to use rivers to trade with other civilizations. In those (300-1200 AD), rivers were the fastest and easiest way to carry goods. Si

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